Cornell University Chronicle: Alyosha Molnar, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, and his group are building light field image sensors that give readouts of the incident angle of light as it strikes the sensor. The result could be the next generation of 3-D cameras, as well as the ability to focus photos after they're taken, similar to Lytro. This work appears to be a continuation of one presented at ISSCC 2011 (See: A. Wang, P. Gill, and A. Molnar, " An Angle-Sensitive CMOS Imager for Single-Sensor 3D Photography", also in Jan., 2012 issue of JSSC).
"If I want to find something in 3-D space, if I just measure the amount of light hitting different locations, I know a little bit. I'll get some sort of blurry blob," Molnar said. "But if I know the incident angle of the light, I can triangulate back. So the question is how do you measure that?"
Few slides from Alyosha's group research site explain the principle:
The sensors have resolution of 150K pixels, but the increased resolution is promised. The latest sensors are implemented in 130nm 8M+1P CMOS process.