Friday, May 15, 2020

Vidicon vs CCD vs CMOS at CERN

GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Germany, publishes paper "Video Cameras used in Beam Instrumentation -- an Overview" by B. Walasek-Hoehne, K. Hoehne, R. Singh. The paper has been presented at CERN Accelerator School: Course on Beam Instrumentation, in June 2018, Tuusula, Finland.

"Imaging systems have been an integral part of many beam monitors since the early days of accelerator diagnostics. The main application remains the observation of scintillating screens during commissioning, alignment and routine operation with the beam. Recorded images are often further analyzed to characterize the beam distribution for machine optimization. This report provides an overview of imaging technologies and market trends of today. The image sensor, like TV tubes and solid state sensors (CCD, CMOS and CID), with particular focus on the aspects important for beam instrumentation will be discussed. Digital image acquisition as well as camera interfaces and radiation effects will be also presented."

"For the video tube camera like Vidicon, there is no radiation limit as proven by many years of operation at CERN SPS and only aging of the optics caused by irradiation can limit the system performance.

In comparison, a standard CCD camera at the same position went out of order within two weeks.

"The CID-based camera exhibits a significant improvement for operation in a radiation rich environment as compared to the CCD and CMOS-based cameras. No significant change in the camera performance like quality of image, loss of contrast and resolution was observed. This is inline with the tests performed by the manufacturer. These devices were found to be tolerant to gammas, neutrons, high energy electrons and proton radiation to at least 30 kGy. First noticeable degradation in the image quality was reported for 140 kGy exposure.

CCD and CMOS are typically not radiation hard; they can survive irradiation up to 100 Gy.

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